What is MongoDB? Introduction, Architecture, Features & Example

Businesses should understand the pros that MongoDB offers and the cons that it possesses. MongoDB is easily connected to node and express, and that is something great about MongoDB. We can easily add it to a node express backend, not directly to angular. This content is not meant to be a formal definition of this term. Rather, it is an informal summary that seeks to provide supplemental information and context important to know or keep in mind about the term’s history, meaning, and usage.

MongoDB meaning

To help understand indexes, imagine a database collection storing products in an online store. Each product is represented by a document containing images, detailed descriptions, category relationships, and many other fields. The application frequently runs a query against this collection to check which products are in stock. The includeArrayIndex option is used to obtain the array index with the $unwind operation output.

How does the MongoDB aggregation pipeline work?

MongoDB is a source-available cross-platform document-oriented database program. Classified as a NoSQL database program, MongoDB uses JSON-like documents with optional schemas. MongoDB is developed by MongoDB Inc. and licensed under the Server Side Public License which is deemed non-free by several distributions.

MongoDB sends strong signals despite cautious macro tones – SiliconANGLE News

MongoDB sends strong signals despite cautious macro tones.

Posted: Sat, 04 Jun 2022 07:00:00 GMT [source]

Mongoose has a flexible API and provides many ways to accomplish a task. We need to call the model constructor on the Mongoose instance and pass it the name of the collection and a reference to the schema definition. ‘Documents’ are equivalent to records or rows of data in SQL. While a SQL row can reference data in other tables, Mongo documents usually combine that in a document.

Dictionary Entries Near mongo

We can define a field in the “includeArrayIndex” syntax to get the array index of each output document. If the array field is null, this will result in a null value in the user-defined field, and if an empty array is present, it will be ignored as there are no items in that array. When you perform $unwind operation on the above data set with the “model_year” field, the output will consist of five results. The MongoDB $unwind operator is used to deconstruct an array field in a document and create separate output documents for each item in the array.

Aggregation – MapReduce can be applied to enable batch processing of data as well as perform aggregation operations. In some failure scenarios where an application can access two distinct MongoDB processes, but these processes cannot access each other, it is possible for MongoDB to return stale reads. In this scenario it is also possible for MongoDB to roll back writes that have been acknowledged.

  • There are also a large number of unofficial or community-supported drivers for other programming languages and frameworks.
  • Each replica-set member may act in the role of primary or secondary replica at any time.
  • It does this by filtering out those that do not follow our requirements.
  • Following example shows the document structure of a blog site, which is simply a comma separated key value pair.
  • Documents in a single collection can have different fields.

Using fat arrow functions will change what this refers to. Here we define a property called email with a schema type String which maps to an internal validator that will be triggered when the model is saved to the database. It will fail if the data type of the value is not a string type. I’ve introduced the MongoDB aggregation pipeline and demonstrated with examples how to use only some stages. With Studio 3T, you have two dedicated panels to check the input and output documents for any particular stage.

The UpdateDefinitionBuilder provides a type-safe API for building the MongoDB update specification. Each projection definition is implicity convertible from both a JSON string as well as a BsonDocument. For more information on valid lambda expressions, see the expressions documentation. Alternatively, you can elect to use a string-based field name instead.

Mongo Metrics: Calculating the Mean

A pipeline definition defines an entire aggregation pipeline. It is implicitly convertible from a List, a BsonDocument, a List , and a IPipelineStageDefinition[]. When using entities with properties or fields that serialize to arrays, you can use the methods prefixed with “Any” to compare the entire array against a single item. So, for a document that has a location field storing the array [ “China”, “Nepal” ], two separate index entries appear for the same document, one for China and another for Nepal. This way, MongoDB can use the index efficiently even if the query requests a partial match against the array contents.

MongoDB meaning

It is categorized under the NoSQL database because the storage and retrieval of data in the MongoDB are not in the form of tables. Map-reduce can be used for batch processing of data and aggregation operations. But according to MongoDB’s documentation, the Aggregation Pipeline provides better performance for most aggregation operations. This function, called grid file system, is included with MongoDB drivers. MongoDB exposes functions for file manipulation and content to developers. GridFS can be accessed using mongofiles utility or plugins for Nginx and lighttpd.


MongoDB name is derived from the word “Humongous” which means huge, enormous. MongoDB database is built to store a huge amount of data and also postgresql has many modern features including perform fast. Jepsen noted in their report that MongoDB omitted any mention of these findings on MongoDB’s “MongoDB and Jepsen” page.

IT can process the data structured in this way more efficiently and, of course, these documents are also much easier for people to read. This type of data storage is incredibly beneficial for developers, as they no longer have to adapt their applications to the requirements of the database. With MongoDB, applications can store data in a natural and convenient way. This also means that adding new data is possible without worrying that a simple change could cause database records to become unreadable. It is opposite to SQL based databases where it does not normalize data under schemas and tables where every table has a fixed structure. Instead, it stores data in the collections as JSON based documents and does not enforce schemas.

Word History

Defining the “preserveNullAndEmptyArrays” option in a $unwind operation allows the user to include documents where the array field is missing, null, or an empty array. The “preserveNullAndEmptyArrays” option only takes Boolean arguments like true or false. Before MongoDB 3.2, if a non-array field is defined as the path in the $unwind operator, it would have resulted in an error.

MongoDB meaning

Mongoose is an Object Data Modeling library for MongoDB and Node.js. It manages relationships between data, provides schema validation, and is used to translate between objects in code and the representation of those objects in MongoDB. To take advantage of indexes, you must do it in the first stage of your pipeline. If you have both $sort and $match stages, it is always better to use the $match before the $sort in order to minimize the number of documents that the $sort stage has to deal with.

Retrieving data from so many places is inefficient and applications need complex programming codes to deal with it. The conceptual differences of the document-oriented NoSQL database MongoDB to conventional SQL databases can be explained in https://globalcloudteam.com/ the following example. We have barely scratched the surface exploring some of the capabilities of Mongoose. It is a rich library full of useful and and powerful features that make it a joy to work with data models in the application layer.

Query Building

This is similar to the basic aggregation available in SQL with the GROUP BY clause and COUNT, SUM and AVG functions. MongoDB Aggregation goes further though and can also perform relational-like joins, reshape documents, create new and update existing collections, and so on. MongoDB is a leading NoSQL database that empowers businesses to be more agile and scalable with their data. Typically, all documents in a collection are of similar or related purpose. MongoDB performs 100 times faster than other relational databases and provides high performance.

These documents are not limited to having the same number of column documents or data fields. Let’s first look at a small part of this system, the contact information for the customers. It could start with a simple table that contains one row for each customer. This row has a unique customer ID number, a first and last name, email address, phone number and company address. MongoDB is a cross-platform, document oriented database that provides, high performance, high availability, and easy scalability.

Checking our aggregation query

When a primary replica fails, the replica set automatically switches over to the secondary and then it becomes the primary server. Database – This is a container for collections like in RDMS wherein it is a container for tables. Each database gets its own set of files on the file system.

We also use MongoDB group and sort methods to get the average price according to the vehicle colours. The $unwind operator can be used with two optional arguments, which are includeArrayIndex and preserveNullAndEmptyArrays. This section will demonstrate how each option affects the result of an $unwind operation.

But the community server version available free of charge at is an excellent way to enter the NoSQL world with this database. The combination of the MongoDB document model and the distributed system components gives MongoDB an advantage over relational databases. MongoDB scales seamlessly to multiple servers to store and process data.

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